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  1. Gao, X., Zhou, X., and Gulari, E. (1999) Method and apparatus for parallel synthesis of molecular sequence arrays using photo-generated reagents. PCT International Publication WO 99/41007.
  2. Yang, X., Hang, X., Cross, C., Bare, S., Sanghvi, Y., and Gao, X. (1999) NMR structure of antisense DNA·RNA hybrid duplex containing a 3'-CH2-N(CH3)-O5' or an MMI backbone linker. Biochemistry 38, 12586-12596. [Abstract]
  3. Gao, X., Yu, P. Y., LeProust, E., Sonigo, L., Pellois, J. P., and Zhang, H. (1998) Oligonucleotide synthesis using solution photogenerated acids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12698-12699.
  4. Huang, X., and Gao, X. (1998) Structure and dynamics of DNA CCG and CGG Trinucleotide Repeats. in Solution, motion, interaction and expression of biological macromolecules. Eds. Sarma, R. H., and Sarma, M. H., Adenine Press, 2, 221-234.
  5. Ruan, K.-H., Ji, J. Li, D., Lin, Y.-Z., and Gao, X. (1998) Structural characterization and topology of the second potential membrane anchor region in the thromboxane A2 synthase amino-terminal domain. Biochemistry 37, 822-830. [Abstract]
  6. Gao, X., Huang, X., Smith, G. K., Zheng, M. (1998) Structure and dynamics of single stranded nucleic acids containing trinucleotide repeats. in Genetic instabilities and hereditary neurological diseases. Eds. Warren, S. T. and Wells, R. D., Academic Press, USA, 623-646.
  7. Jing, N., Gao, X., Rando, R., and Hogan, M. E. (1997) Potassium-induced loop conformational transition of a potent anti-HIV oligonucleotide. J. Biomol. Struct.Dynam. 15, 573-585.[Abstract]
  8. Huang, X., Lin, P., LeProust, E., and Gao, X. (1997) An efficient and economic site-specific deuteration strategy for NMR studies of homologous oligonucleotide repeat sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 25, 4758-4763.[Abstract]
  9. Yang, X., Sanghvi, Y. S., and Gao, X. (1997) Conformational studies of antisense DNA by PFG NMR. J. Biomol. NMR. 10, 383-388.[Abstract]
  10. Gao, X., Rice, J. S., Cross, C. W., Yang, X. (1997) Structural correlations of backbone modifications in antisense oligonucleotide duplexes. Nucleosides and Nucleotides 16, 1599-1608. [Invited Paper]
  11. Cross, C. W., Rice, J. S., and Gao, X. (1997) Solution structure of a RNA·DNA hybrid duplex containing a 3-thioformacetal linker and an RNA A-tract. Biochemistry 36, 4096-4107.
  12. Rice, J. S., and Gao, X. (1997) Conformation of formacetal and 3-thioformacetal nucleotide linkers and the stability of their antisense RNA·DNA hybrid duplexes. Biochemistry 36, 399-411.[Abstract]
  13. Zheng, M., Huang, H., Smith, G. K., Yang, X., Gao, X. (1996) Genetically unstable CXG repeats are structurally dynamic and have a high propensity for folding. An NMR and UV spectroscopic study. J. Mol. Biol. 264, 323-336.
  14. Stassinopoulos, A., Jie, J., Gao, X., and Goldberg, I. H. (1996) Solution structure of a DNA bulge complex with an enediyne analog. Science 272, 1943-1946.
  15. Jie, J., Hogan, M., and Gao, X. (1996) Structure of an antiparallel purine motif triplex interrupted by a TCG triplet. Structure 4, 425-435.
  16. Smith, G. K., Jie, J., Fox, G. E., and Gao, X. (1995) DNA CTG triplet repeats involved in dynamic mutations of neurologically related gene sequences form stable duplexes. Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 4303-4311.[Abstract]
  17. Gao, X., Huang, X., Smith, G. K., Zheng, M., and Liu. H. (1995) A new antiparallel duplex motif of DNA CCG repeats that is stabilized by extrahelical bases symmetrically located in the minor groove. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 8883-8884.
  18. Gao, X., Stassinopoulos, A., Gu, Juan, and Goldberg, I. H. (1995) NMR studies of the post-activated neocarzinostatin chromophore-DNA complex. Conformational changes induced in drug and DNA. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 3, 795-809. [Invited Publication][Abstract]
  19. Wang, W., Liang, C., Zheng, M., and Gao, X. (1995) Selective acylation of N-(2-Phosphonoethyl) ethylenediamine phosphonates. Tetrahedron Letters 36, 1181-1184.
  20. Gao, X., Stassinopoulos, A., Rice, J. S., and Goldberg, I. H. (1995) Structure of a post-activated neocarzinostatin chromophore-DNA complex. Biochemistry 34, 40-49.[Abstract]
  21. Gao, X. (1995) Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: 3 Dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance. in Encyclopedia of Analytical Science. Academic Press: London.
  22. Gao, X., and Patel, D. J. (1990) Chromomycin dimer-DNA oligomer complexes: sequence selectivity and divalent cation specificity. Biochemistry 29, 10940-10956.[Abstract]>
  23. Radhakrishnan, I., Gao, X., de los Santos, C., Live, D., and Patel, D. J. (1991) NMR structural studies of intermolecular (Y+)n(R+)n(Y-)n DNA triplexes in solution: Imino and amino proton and nitrogen markers of GTA base triple formation. Biochemistry 30, 9022-9030.
  24. Leroy, J.-L., Gao, X., Guéron, M., and Patel, D. J. (1991) Proton exchange and internal motion of the chromomycin dimer-DNA oligomer complexes. Biochemistry 30, 5653-5661.
  25. Wang, C., Gao, X., and Jones, R. A.. (1991) Nitrogen-15 labelled oligodeoxynucleotides. 2. solvent isotope effects on the chemical shift of the adenine N1 in an AT base pair. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 113, 1448-1450.
  26. Radhakrishnan, I., Patel, D. J., and Gao, X. (1991) Assignment strategies of DNA protons through three dimensional proton-proton connectivities. Applied to a DNA triplex. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 8542-8544.
  27. Gao, X., and Burkhart, W. (1991) Two and three dimensional proton NMR studies of apo-neocarzinostatin. Biochemistry 30, 7730-7739.[Abstract]
  28. Wang, Y., de los Santos, C., Gao, X., Greene, K., Live, D. and Patel, D. J. (1991) Multinuclear NMR studies of Na cation-stabilized complex formed by d(GGTTTTCGG) in solution. Implications for G-tetrad structures. J. Mol. Biol. 222, 819-832.[Abstract]
  29. Leroy, J.-L., Gao, X., Misra, V., Guéron, M., and Patel, D. J. (1992) Proton exchange in DNA-luzopeptin and DNA-echinomycin bisintercalation complexes: rates and processes of base-pair opening. Biochemistry 31,1407-1415.[Abstract]
  30. Radhakrishnan, I., Patel, D. J., and Gao, X. (1992) Three-dimensional homonuclear NOESY-TOCSY of an intramolecular pyrimidinepurinepyrimidine DNA triplex containing a central GTA triple. Non-exchangeable proton assignments and structural implications. Biochemistry 31, 2514-2523.
  31. Gao, X., Mirau, P., and Patel, D. J. (1992) Structure refinement of the chromomycin dimer-DNA oligomer complex in solution. J. Mol. Biol. 222, 819-832.
  32. Gao, X. (1992) Three dimensional solution structure of apo-neocarzinostatin. J. Mol. Biol. 225, 125-135.[Abstract]
  33. Gao, X., Brown, F. K., Jeffs, P., Bischofberger, N., Lin, K-Y., Pipe, A. J., and Noble, S. A. (1992) Probing structural factors stabilizing antisense oligonucleotide duplexes. NMR studies of DNADNA duplexes containinga formacetal linkage. Biochemistry 31, 6228-6236.[Abstract]
  34. Radhakrishnan, I., Patel, D. J., and Gao, X. (1992) Solution conformation of a GTA triple in an intramolecular pyrimidinepurinepyrimidine DNA triplex. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 6913-6915.
  35. Veal, J. M., Gao, X., and Brown, F. K. (1993) A comparison of DNA oligomer duplexes containing formacetal and phosphodiester linkers using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 7139-7145.
  36. Gao, X., and Jeffs, P. W. (1994) Two- and three-dimensional NMR studies of the Dodeca-DNADNA duplex containing a 3'-thioformacetal linkage. Detection of an unusual backbone conformation. J. Biomol. NMR 4, 17-34.
  37. Gao, X., and Jeffs, P. W. (1994) NMR studies of a hybrid DNARNA dodeca-duplex. 3D NOESY-NOESY spectral analysis and sequence dependent conformational heterogeneity. J. Biomol. NMR 4, 367-384.
  38. Dittrich, K., Gu, J., Tinder, R., Hogan, M., and Gao, X. (1994) TCG triplet inversion in an antiparallel purpurpyr DNA triplex. Conformational studies by NMR. Biochemistry 33, 4111-4120.
  39. Gao, X., Gaffney, B., Senior, M., Riddle, M., and Jones, R. (1985) Methylationof thymidine residuesin oligonucleotide synthesis. Nucleic Acid Res. 13,573-584.[Abstract]
  40. Gao, X., Gaffney, B., Hadden, S., and Jones, R. (1986) Transient protection. 2. One flask synthesis of 6-O-(4-nitrophenylethyl)2'-deoxyguanosine nucleosides. J. Org. Chem. 51, 755-758.
  41. Gao, X. and Patel, D. J. (1987) NMR studies of A•C mismatches in DNA dodecanucleotides at acidic pH: wobble A(anti)•C(anti) pair formation. J. Biol. Chem. 262, 16973-16984. [Abstract]
  42. Gao, X., and Jones, R. (1987) Nitrogen-15-labeled deoxynucleosides. Synthesis of 15N6 and 15N1 deoxyadenosines from deoxyadenosine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 1275-1278.[Full]
  43. Gao, X., and Jones, R. (1987) Nitrogen-15-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides. Characterization by 15N NMR of d[CGTACG] containing 15N6 or 15N1 labeled deoxyadenosine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 3169-3173.
  44. Gao, X., and Patel, D. J. (1988) NMR studies of echinomycin bisintercalationcomplexes with d[A1-C2-G3-T4] and d[T1-C2-G3-A4] duplexes in aqueous solution: sequence dependent formation of Hoogsteen A1T4 and Watson-Crick T1A4 base pairs flanking the bisintercalation site. Biochemistry 27, 1744-1751.[Abstract]
  45. Gao, X., and Patel, D. J. (1988) G(syn)A(anti) mismatch formation in DNA dodecamers at acidic pH: pH-dependent conformational transition of GA mispairs detected by proton NMR. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 5178-5182.[Full]
  46. Gao, X., and Patel, D. J. (1989) Antitumor Drug-DNA interactions: NMR studies of echinomycin and chromomycin complexes. Quart. Rev. Biophys. 22, 93-138.
  47. Kouchakdjian, M., Gao, X., Marinelli, E., Johnson, F., Grollman, A., and Patel, D. J. (1989) NMR studies of exocyclic 1,N2-propanoguanosine adducts (X) opposite purines in DNA duplexes: X(syn)AH+(anti) pairing (acidic pH) and X(syn)(G(anti) pairing (neutral pH) at the lesion site. Biochemistry 28, 5647-5657.
  48. Gao, X., and Patel, D. J. (1989) Solution structure of the chromomycin-DNA complex. Biochemistry 28, 751-762.[Abstract]


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